日本近代法典与台湾习惯法的法律移植外文翻译资料

 2021-11-04 10:11

Legal Transplantation Involving Japanese Modern Codes and Taiwanese Customary Law

Because of Taiwan#39;s status as a Japanese colony, it is important to understand 1) the process of legal modernization in prewar Japan; and 2) how Japanese modern law worked alongside, and sometimes replaced, Taiwanese customary law.

A. Legal Experiences of Japanese Colonists

Japanese governance of Taiwan was the first major influence on the development of modern Taiwanese laws. In 1895, Qing China ceded Taiwan to the prewar Japanese Empire under the Treaty of Shimonoseki.5 Prior to succession, Qing China officials in Taiwan established a Republic in an attempt to prevent Japanese rule, but it nonetheless failed to resist the Japanese invasion.6 Accordingly, Taiwan was already detached from the Chinese empire when Qing China modernized its law in 1902. Under the contemporaneous global tendency toward legal Westernization,7 Taiwan thus embarked on this course, prompted by the Japanese intervention rather than organization by residents on the island. Citizen-organized government did not emerge until the 1990s, about a hundred years later. As a result, the Taiwanese-composed of Han Chinese immigrants and plains aborigines assimilated by the Han Chinese immigrants during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945)-were exposed to a modern law introduced and implemented by the Japanese authorities. An exception to this was most of the mountain aborigines, who maintained their original culture and were not exposed to modern-style laws due to the Japanese separation policy toward them.8 In any event, the extent to which Taiwanese people were exposed to modern law depended on the decisions made by Japanese rulers. Those Japanese colonialists were influenced by Japan#39;s own experience with modern law. Therefore, to understand the development of Taiwanese law, it is necessary to understand the process of legal modernization in prewar Japan.

Prior to acquiring Taiwan in 1895, Meiji Japan was engaged in modernizing its own law for merely a quarter century. The modern law derived from the West was so peculiar to the Japanese that they had to invent a word for even such a fundamental term as 'right' (kenn)9 In 1869, the Japanese Meiji government began rapidly translating the various French legal codes; 10 thereafter, the Japanese also translated codes of other European civil law countries, including Germany. Western legal scholars were then invited to teach in Japan and assist the Japanese government in drafting Japan#39;s modern codes. In addition, a system allowing Japanese students to study abroad was promoted so the students learned to translate Western law and legal terminology, and to comprehend modern jurisprudence.

Japanese modern codes were developed based on translations of continental European laws and jurisprudence. Criminal law is always a prime legal tool of an emergent regime. The first modern codes promulgated by the new Meiji government were the 1880 Criminal Code and the 1880 Code of Criminal Instruction, which were based on drafts by Dr. Boissonade, a French advisor. Modernization of Japanese civil law, however, occurred piecemeal over a longer period of time. Through the 1880s, the entire law of family, private transactions, and civil procedure continued to be governed by unrecorded customary law. This system was largely unsuitable for modern social and commercial relations, and could be highly divergent from place to place. Nonetheless, certain Western laws, which had been translated into Japanese, still entered the Japanese civil law through the judicial process as an expression of reason; they were a source of law to be applied by judges. A draft of the Civil Code based on French law was completed in 1890, but its implementation was postponed. The 1890 Code of Civil procedure, modeled on German law, was smoothly implemented in 1891. Finally, the first three books ('general provisions,' 'rights over things,' and 'obligations') of the new Civil Code were enacted in 1896 and to a large degree were influenced by German jurisprudence. The Civil Code#39;s last two books ('family' and 'succession') were enacted in 1898.

The questions of whether to adopt foreign laws and which foreign country#39;s code was best for legal transplantation were answered in accordance with the needs of the ruling class of Meiji Japan. The Meiji government realized in the 1870s that Japan needed to compile modern codes based on Western law in order to end extraterritoriality and to become an independent state equal to the Western powers. Legal modernization was also necessary for Japan to adopt Western capitalism, which would 'enrich the country and strengthen the army.' Meiji Japan therefore turned to the continental European codes, first the French and later the German, for their models. At this time American and English common laws, as well as Japanese customary laws, were not in a sufficiently coherent form to 'enable the Japanese to adopt them as solutions to their urgent diplomatic or systematization problems.' In contrast to the immediate abandonment of most Japanese customary laws, in two instances political incentives precluded the adoption of modern laws. First, the traditional family system of Japan was intentionally preserved in the Civil Code to maintain prewar Japan#39;s family state ideology of the Emperor system, under which the Emperor was the head of all Japanese families. Second, the absolutist character of the Prussian Empire was more attractive to Meiji leaders than the democratic liberalism of France or England.This political selection further influenced the later development of Japan#39;s legal codes and jurisprudence, including the 1889 Meiji Constitution, which tended towards executive supremacy. Indeed, the establishment of Japan#39;s modern legal system was a response to both internal and external state needs rather than to social necessity.

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日本近代法典与台湾习惯法的法律移植

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Because of Taiwan#39;s status as a Japanese colony, it is important to understand 1) the process of legal modernization in prewar Japan; and 2) how Japanese modern law worked alongside, and sometimes replaced, Taiwanese customary law.

由于台湾作为日本殖民地的地位,了解1)战前日本的法律现代化进程;2)日本现代法如何与台湾习惯法并肩工作,有时甚至取代台湾习惯法,是非常重要的

A.日本殖民者的法律经验

A . rigrave;日 běn本 zhiacute;殖 miacute;n民 zhě者 de的 fǎ法 lǜ律 jīng经 yagrave;n验

Japanese governance of Taiwan was the first major influence on the development of modern Taiwanese laws. In 1895, Qing China ceded Taiwan to the prewar Japanese Empire under the Treaty of Shimonoseki.5 Prior to succession, Qing China officials in Taiwan established a Republic in an attempt to prevent Japanese rule, but it nonetheless failed to resist the Japanese invasion.6 Accordingly, Taiwan was already detached from the Chinese empire when Qing China modernized its law in 1902. Under the contemporaneous global tendency toward legal Westernization,7 Taiwan thus embarked on this course, prompted by the Japanese intervention rather than organization by residents on the island. Citizen-organized government did not emerge until the 1990s, about a hundred years later. As a result, the Taiwanese-composed of Han Chinese immigrants and plains aborigines assimilated by the Han Chinese immigrants during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945)-were exposed to a modern law introduced and implemented by the Japanese authorities. An exception to this was most of the mountain aborigines, who maintained their original culture and were not exposed to modern-style laws due to the Japanese separation policy toward them.8 In any event, the extent to which Taiwanese people were exposed to modern law depended on the decisions made by Japanese rulers. Those Japanese colonialists were influenced by Japan#39;s own experience with modern law. Therefore, to understand the development of Taiwanese law, it is necessary to understand the process of legal modernization in prewar Japan.

日本对台湾的统治是近代台湾法律发展的第一大影响。1895年,清朝根据《下关条约》将台湾割让给战前的日本帝国。在继承前,清朝台湾官员建立了一个共和国,试图阻止日本统治,但却未能抵抗日本的入侵。因此,清朝时台湾已经脱离了中国帝国。INA于1902年使其法律现代化。台湾在当时全球化的法制洋务化趋势下,在日本的介入而非岛内居民组织的推动下,开始了这一进程。公民组织政府直到90年代才出现,大约100年后。因此,在日本殖民时期(1895-1945),由汉族移民和被汉族移民同化的平原原住民组成的台湾人受到日本当局引进和实施的现代法律的影响。例外的是,由于日本对台湾的分居政策,大多数山地土著人保持着自己的原始文化,没有接触到现代风格的法律。无论如何,台湾人民接触到现代法律的程度取决于日本统治者的决定。这些日本殖民者受到日本自身现代法律经验的影响。因此,了解台湾法律的发展,有必要了解战前日本法律现代化的进程。

rigrave;日 běn本 duigrave;对 taacute;i台 wān湾 de的 tǒng统 zhigrave;治 shigrave;是 jigrave;n近 dagrave;i代 taacute;i台 wān湾 fǎ法 lǜ律 fā发 zhǎn展 de的 digrave;第 yī一 dagrave;大 yǐng影 xiǎng响 。 1 8 9 5 niaacute;n年 , qīng清 chaacute;o朝 gēn根 jugrave;据 《 xiagrave;下 guān关 tiaacute;o条 yuē约 》 jiāng将 taacute;i台 wān湾 gē割 ragrave;ng让 gěi给 zhagrave;n战 qiaacute;n前 de的 rigrave;日 běn本 digrave;帝 guoacute;国 。 5 zagrave;i在 jigrave;继 cheacute;ng承 qiaacute;n前 , qīng清 chaacute;o朝 taacute;i台 wān湾 guān官 yuaacute;n员 jiagrave;n建 ligrave;立 le了 yī一 gegrave;个 gograve;ng共 heacute;和 guoacute;国 , shigrave;试 tuacute;图 zǔ阻 zhǐ止 rigrave;日 běn本 tǒng统 zhigrave;治 , dagrave;n但 quegrave;却 wegrave;i未 neacute;ng能 dǐ抵 kagrave;ng抗 rigrave;日 běn本 de的 rugrave;入 qīn侵 。 6 yīn因 cǐ此 , qīng清 chaacute;o朝 shiacute;时 taacute;i台 wān湾 yǐ已 jīng经 tuō脱 liacute;离 le了 zhōng中 guoacute;国 digrave;帝 guoacute;国 。 I N A yuacute;于 1 9 0 2 niaacute;n年 shǐ使 qiacute;其 fǎ法 lǜ律 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 huagrave;化 。 7 taacute;i台 wān湾 zagrave;i在 dāng当 shiacute;时 quaacute;n全 qiuacute;球 huagrave;化 de的 fǎ法 zhigrave;制 yaacute;ng洋 wugrave;务 huagrave;化 qū趋 shigrave;势 xiagrave;下 , zagrave;i在 rigrave;日 běn本 de的 jiegrave;介 rugrave;入 eacute;r而 fēi非 dǎo岛 negrave;i内 jū居 miacute;n民 zǔ组 zhī织 de的 tuī推 dograve;ng动 xiagrave;下 , kāi开 shǐ始 le了 zhegrave;这 yī一 jigrave;n进 cheacute;ng程 。 gōng公 miacute;n民 zǔ组 zhī织 zhegrave;ng政 fǔ府 zhiacute;直 dagrave;o到 9 0 niaacute;n年 dagrave;i代 caacute;i才 chū出 xiagrave;n现 , dagrave;大 yuē约 1 0 0 niaacute;n年 hograve;u后 。 yīn因 cǐ此 , zagrave;i在 rigrave;日 běn本 zhiacute;殖 miacute;n民 shiacute;时 qī期 ( 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 4 5 ) , yoacute;u由 hagrave;n汉 zuacute;族 yiacute;移 miacute;n民 heacute;和 begrave;i被 hagrave;n汉 zuacute;族 yiacute;移 miacute;n民 toacute;ng同 huagrave;化 de的 piacute;ng平 yuaacute;n原 yuaacute;n原 zhugrave;住 miacute;n民 zǔ组 cheacute;ng成 de的 taacute;i台 wān湾 reacute;n人 shograve;u受 dagrave;o到 rigrave;日 běn本 dāng当 juacute;局 yǐn引 jigrave;n进 heacute;和 shiacute;实 shī施 de的 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 fǎ法 lǜ律 de的 yǐng影 xiǎng响 。 ligrave;例 wagrave;i外 de的 shigrave;是 , yoacute;u由 yuacute;于 rigrave;日 běn本 duigrave;对 taacute;i台 wān湾 de的 fēn分 jū居 zhegrave;ng政 cegrave;策 , dagrave;大 duō多 shugrave;数 shān山 digrave;地 tǔ土 zhugrave;著 reacute;n人 bǎo保 chiacute;持 zhe着 zigrave;自 jǐ己 de的 yuaacute;n原 shǐ始 weacute;n文 huagrave;化 , meacute;i没 yǒu有 jiē接 chugrave;触 dagrave;o到 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 fēng风 geacute;格 de的 fǎ法 lǜ律 。 8 wuacute;无 lugrave;n论 ruacute;如 heacute;何 , taacute;i台 wān湾 reacute;n人 miacute;n民 jiē接 chugrave;触 dagrave;o到 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 fǎ法 lǜ律 de的 cheacute;ng程 dugrave;度 qǔ取 jueacute;决 yuacute;于 rigrave;日 běn本 tǒng统 zhigrave;治 zhě者 de的 jueacute;决 digrave;ng定 。 zhegrave;这 xiē些 rigrave;日 běn本 zhiacute;殖 miacute;n民 zhě者 shograve;u受 dagrave;o到 rigrave;日 běn本 zigrave;自 shēn身 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 fǎ法 lǜ律 jīng经 yagrave;n验 de的 yǐng影 xiǎng响 。 yīn因 cǐ此 , liǎo了 jiě解 taacute;i台 wān湾 fǎ法 lǜ律 de的 fā发 zhǎn展 , yǒu有 bigrave;必 yagrave;o要 liǎo了 jiě解 zhagrave;n战 qiaacute;n前 rigrave;日 běn本 fǎ法 lǜ律 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 huagrave;化 de的 jigrave;n进 cheacute;ng程 。

Prior to acquiring Taiwan in 1895, Meiji Japan was engaged in modernizing its own law for merely a quarter century. The modern law derived from the West was so peculiar to the Japanese that they had to invent a word for even such a fundamental term as 'right' (kenn)9 In 1869, the Japanese Meiji government began rapidly translating the various French legal codes; 10 thereafter, the Japanese also translated codes of other European civil law countries, including Germany. Western legal scholars were then invited to teach in Japan and assist the Japanese government in drafting Japan#39;s modern codes. In addition, a system allowing Japanese students to study abroad was promoted so the students learned to translate Western law and legal terminology, and to comprehend modern jurisprudence.11

在1895年收购台湾之前,明治日本仅在四分之一个世纪的时间里致力于本国法律的现代化。源于西方的现代法律对日本人来说是如此的特殊,以至于他们不得不在1869年发明一个词来表达“权利”(kenn)这样一个基本术语,日本明治政府开始迅速翻译各种法国法律法典;此后,日本还翻译了其他欧洲大陆法系国家的法典,包括G。埃莫尼。随后,西方法律学者应邀到日本任教,协助日本政府起草日本的现代法典。此外,还推行了允许日本学生出国留学的制度,学生们学会了翻译西方法律和法律术语,并理解现代法学。

日本现代法典是在欧洲大陆法和法学翻译的基础上发展起来的。刑法始终是紧急政权的主要法律工具。明治新政府颁布的第一部现代法典是1880年的《刑法》和1880年的《刑事指导法典》,它们是根据法国顾问博伊索纳德博士的草案制定的。然而,日本民法的现代化在一个较长的时期内是零碎的。到了19世纪80年代,整个家庭法、私人交易法和民事诉讼法仍由未登记的习惯法管辖。这一制度在很大程度上不适合现代社会和商业关系,并可能在不同的地方有很大的差异。尽管如此,一些被翻译成日语的西方法律仍然通过司法程序进入日本民法,作为一种理性的表达;它们是法官适用的法律来源.1890年完成了一份以法国法律为基础的民法草案,但推迟了该草案的实施。1890年的《民事诉讼法》仿照德国法律,于1891年顺利实施。最后,新民法的前三本书(“一般条款”、“物上权利”和“义务”)于1896年颁布,在很大程度上受到德国法理学的影响。《民法典》最后两本书(“家庭”和“继承”)于1898年颁布。

rigrave;日 běn本 xiagrave;n现 dagrave;i代 fǎ法 diǎn典 shigrave;是 zagrave;i在 ōu欧 zhōu洲 dagrave;大 lugrave;陆 fǎ法 heacute;和 fǎ法 xueacute;学 fān翻 yigrave;译 de的 jī基 chǔ础 shagrave;ng上 fā发 zhǎn展 qǐ起 laacute;i来 de的 。 xiacute;ng刑 fǎ法 shǐ始 zhōng终 shigrave;是 jǐn紧 jiacute;急 zhegrave;ng政 quaacute;n权 de的 zhǔ主 yagrave;o要 fǎ法 lǜ

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