动力与动力的模拟 船用电站调速器外文翻译资料

 2021-12-28 10:12

Abstract :The operating functions of the marine power station are simulated by computer technology and the virtual pow er plant is also developed in the sy stem .Thus it is possible to realize better natural man-machine interaction interface and immersion , completing the function of power station simulation system in marine pow er plant simulato r .

Key words:pow er station simulation ;synchronous generato r ;excitatio n control sy stems ;mathematical model.

The study on power statio n simulation tech-nology started in the 1970s , and the technolog y has been developing rapidly in the past thirty y ears. Pow er station simulation systems of various scales based on local area netw orks have been successfully developed .Simulation technology will get into a new stage of development w ith the fantastic spurt in computer science , communication technology , net-w ork technology , visual technology , multimedia technology , virtual reality technique and hig h capa-bility database technolog y .

The power station simulation technology has

g one through three stages of development along

w ith the changes in computer softw are and hard-w are science :(1)the simulation technique based on UNIX or VMS operating system ;(2)the g raphic simulatio n technique based on UNIX or

VM S operating sy stem ;(3)g raphic simulation

technique based on windows operating system[ 1] . The development of computer science and net-w ork communication technology w ill provide new

opportunities and application prospects for simula-tion technology .The fast developing Internet plat-form will be used in future simulation technology . The distributing interactive simulation mode based on Web will be the direction for new generation pow er plant simulation technolog y .On the dis-tributing interactive simulation platform , the pre-sent power station simulation machine sy stem based on LAN can be transformed into pow er station sim-ulation system based on Web , thus realizing the g oal of resource sharing and remote training of many users simultaneously .To achieve the aim of dynamic simulation , the simulation technique will provide virtual reality function , w hich is the appli-cation of virtual reality technique in the power plant simulation system .The Virtual Reality Mod-eling Language (VRM L)w ill present a three di-mension virtual reality .We w ill mainly discuss ma-rine power station simulation that is o ne part of the pow er plant simulato r .

  • Mathematical model for the ma-rine power plant simulation sys-tem

M arine pow er station is an independent power sy stem .Its generator has small capability , its rela-tive load capacity is larger , and the electrical de-vices w ork in bad conditions .Accidents often crop up at w ork .These properties lead to the fact that the operation state of marine power station is a con-tinuation of dynamic processes .There can hardly be a steady process in any real sense .Therefo re carefulMathematical model for the ma-rine power plant simulation sys-tem

M arine pow er station is an independent power sy stem .Its generator has small capability , its rela-tive load capacity is larger , and the electrical de-vices w ork in bad conditions .Accidents often crop up at w ork .These properties lead to the fact that the operation state of marine power station is a con-tinuation of dynamic processes .There can hardly be a steady process in any real sense .Therefo re careful research w ork must be carried out on the dynamic characteristic of marine pow er plants to ensure that the power station designed w orks w ell under all condition and with good quality .

The power station simulation sy stem consists of microcomputers, various kinds of phy sics equip-ment and instruments.A mathematical model is set up based on the electrical sy stem of the generator sets and the power production process .Power sta-tion com puter simulation is realized throug h opera-tion on digital computers .The most impo rtant task is to set up a mathematical model that describes the power station simulation system w hen w e develop a simulator .Pow er station simulation system has tw o main parts :part o ne is the generator sets-the diesel engine , the generato r and accessories .Part two in-cludes monitoring , protection , alarm , operation devices as well as devices that regulate the opera-tion of the generator .Therefore , the mathematical model for the generator sets also has tw o parts :one is a dynamic mathem atical model used to simulate diesel engines , generato rs , accessories and a math-ematical model for system dynamic state ;the o ther is a logic and monitoring mathematical model used to simulate marine pow er station pro tection , alarm operation and monito ring .

Ship power sy stem is a very complex non-lin-ear dynamic system .Since the sy stem runs at a condition point , its dynamic properties can be de-scribed with a liner model instead of a non-linear one .So controllers are often desig ned according to control theory w ith this linear model as a basis .

1 .1 Mathematical Model for Synchronous Gen-erators

The sy nchro nous generato r is the control ob-ject in the excitation control sy stem , and at the same time it is closely related to the excitation con-trol sy stem .It is necessary to analy ze the dy namic properties of the synchronous generator in o rder to study the dy namic properties of the excitatio n sy s-tem .

The transition process of the sy nchronous gen-erator is complicated , so w e briefly introduce sever-al mathematical models in use .We will infer a dy-namic model w ith t he Park equation derived from the d , q coo rdinate system as a basic equation for the synchronous generator .In some special cases , a simplified model can be obtained from the complete dynamic model

1 .2 Mathematical Model for Excitation Control

动力与动力的模拟

船用电站调速器

杨国豪

(集美大学,中国厦门)

  1. 介绍

如今,模拟和预测在科学和技术中发挥着越来越重要的作用。随着计算机的普及和模拟技术的

改进,无论系统的动态操作有多复杂,人们都可以在模拟计算机上完成更精确的计算。由于船舶电

力系统的特殊性和复杂性,原型的实验和研究成本通常很高,有时甚至不可能实施该计划。因此,

开发具有良好容量和平稳运行的仿真系统对于高级海员的培训和进一步的科学研究是非常必要的。

这对于提高船舶电力系统的自动化和船舶操作的安全性也是至关重要的。

考虑到需要大规模仿真,高精度和成本的船舶电站系统,并且可能受到各种因素的干扰,推荐

了交互式混合仿真的方法。在动力和速度调节方面,应根据对学生的要求及其灵活性进行数学模拟。

  1. 动力模拟

动力是船用发电站中船用发电机组的驱动力。目前,柴油机和蒸汽机被广泛用作民用船舶的动

力,尤其是柴油动力更受欢迎。在模拟过程中,重点关注发电机组的动力特性和惯性时间常数。

2.1 1动力模拟的模拟判据

动力转子的运动方程(包括发电机组的轴运行系统)是:

(1)

其中Mr是动力的驱动力矩,]是转子系统的运行惯性,M,是阻力矩(电磁阻力矩和空载功率),0是机械的角速度。转子。

在模拟过程中,模型和原型的模拟常数,根据模拟的模拟定理(7!#39;定理),需要遵守以下并行标准:

先生 . .

7#39;1!= - =

同上,

7!#39;2

= -Mc= z#39;dem,

7!#39;3

= J {J =同上

(2)

bull;

米·特

-300-

?1994-2019中国学术期刊电子出版社。版权所有。 http://www.cnki.net

其中,M,是扭矩的标准值。,r 3需要在所有条件下都得到满足,即模拟转子的机械时间常数需要与实时系统中的原型的机械时间常数相等。以柴油动力为例,模拟如下所示。

2. 2柴油动力的模拟

该系统采用最近用于“晶闸管 - d.c Mo tor”模型的数学模拟。可以通过调节直流电动机的电枢电流来改变MT,以满足模拟标准r 1bull;电流和电枢电流ind。拖模电动机的电动机分别由晶闸

管整流装置中的励磁调节电路和中央电路供电。使用电感器L来改善电枢电流的脉动。柴油动力的模拟结构图如图1所示。

,euro;)

I

日 ,

-

Flg.1方框图或模拟动力

其中,HG是指定积分,ST是速度调节器,LT是电流调节器,CF是输出和放大的元件,YC是移相触发器,I / 0是接口器件,DJM是电子模拟计算机,MLG是脉冲力矩的干扰装置,CSF是速度计的交流电动机。

当K2切换到a时,速度MT,Mo的反馈信号以及反馈信号

通过在柴油发动机中工作的内部速度控制来合成电枢电流Id的nals。反馈信号通过电流调节器放大,产生一系列可调弹簧脉冲,以控制晶闸管的传输角度和输入到阻力发生器的直流电压。因此满足了模拟的要求。当K2切换到b时,柴油机的工作由外部速度控制,柴油机的速度调节特性由电子模拟计算机提供。

通过改变扭矩M的系数可以满足标准r 2;标准

通过增加或减少模拟发电机组轴系中的运行惯量J,可以满足r 3。这是因为:

T-= 2. 74m bull;D 2 bull; n 2

3

,

P,

bull;

x 10-

(3)

其中m是运行部件的质量(kg),D是回转直径(m),P是基准功率

kw),n是发电机组中转速的转速(r / min)。

等式3表明,对m或P做出的任何改变都可能导致T的变化。因此,为了改变模拟发电机组中飞轮的叶片数量,可以很容易地改变m,调整机械时间常数T,并使模型T; m和原型T,y的机械时间常数相等。

-301-

?1994-2019中国学术期刊电子出版社。版权所有。 http://www.cnki.net

  1. 3 柴油机模拟或脉冲扰动力矩

来自汽缸的柴油的不对称喷嘴可能导致力矩输出不均匀。柴油发动机的扭矩产生的干扰力矩的

低频率是影响船舶发电站中的并联连接的稳定性的主要因素之一。开发了一种低频干扰力矩发生器

来进行仿真。下图(图

2)显示其原理。

在图中,F301作为多谐振荡器连接,控制后面并联的电子开关源。它还控制和模拟电动机,d的成熟。c发电机与发电机组同轴。当电子开关打开时,d。c电机处于负载状态,电阻力矩加到d。c发电机。当开关关闭时,电阻力矩消失。振动频率可调,最大范围值

脉冲力矩为660/5000 = 13. 2%。它通常满足模拟mo的要求柴油机无法工作时的特性。

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