促进温尼伯湖流域的生态识字外文翻译资料

 2021-12-10 05:12

英语原文共 653 页

AN ECOLOGICAL PILGRIMAGE:

生态学上的文字:

Fostering ecological literacy in the Lake Winnipeg watershed.

促进温尼伯湖流域的生态识字

by Shawn Stankewich

作者Shawn Stankewich

(属于书籍节选,附上原文)

ABSTRACT

摘要

This practicum investigates the application of ecological literacy theory to the practice of landscape architecture.

本实验研究了生态素养理论在景观设计实践中的应用。

Ecological literacy can be defined as the ability to comprehend the complex relationships of onersquo;s surrounding environment and live life with greater environmental sensitivity. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is home to over 5 million people, and draws its water from four Canadian provinces and four American states. With the anthropogenic manipulation of the landscape, native watershed functions like water retention and filtration have been compromised. Each year, increasing amounts of phosphorus enter the lake from agricultural and urban fertilisers and effluents. This nutrient loading creates algal blooms toxic to humans and other species that rely on the lake for survival.

生态素养可以定义为理解周围环境和生活环境敏感度的复杂关系的能力。 温尼伯湖流域拥有超过500万人口,并从加拿大的四个省和四个美国州取水。 随着对景观的人为操纵,保水和过滤等原生流域功能受到了损害。 每年,越来越多的磷从农业和城市化肥和污水进入湖泊。 这种营养负荷会产生对人类和依赖湖泊生存的其他物种有毒的藻类大量繁殖。

The proposed programmatic framework and design interventions are intended to address these impacts by fostering watershed sustainability and ecological literacy, while engaging citizens in the processes associated with increasing local ecological integrity.

拟议的计划框架和设计干预措施旨在通过促进流域可持续性和生态扫盲来解决这些影响,同时让公民参与与提高当地生态完整性相关的过程。

WHERE THE HISTORY BOOKS BEGIN

历史起源

A starting point for examining the origins of ecological thinking is found in Donald Worsterrsquo;s book Naturersquo;s Economy, one of the most comprehensive records of the history of ecological thought and the emergence of the formal science of ecology. Worsterrsquo;s account by no means covers all aspects, but does a very serviceable job of situating modern ecology within a concise cultural timeline. Worsterrsquo;s timeline recognizes Gilbert White as the first figure in the development of modern ecological thinking (Worster, 1977).

在唐纳德·沃斯特(Donald Worster)的着作“自然经济”(Nature#39;s Economy)中找到了检验生态思想起源的起点,这本书是生态思想史和生态学正式科学出现的最全面的记录之一。 Worster的描述并不涵盖所有方面,但在简洁的文化时间线内完成现代生态学的非常有用的工作。 Worster的时间表认为Gilbert White是现代生态思维发展的第一人(Worster,1977)。

The idea that onersquo;s experience and engagement with their environment might lead to a more passionate and effective environmental stewardship is not a new one. In fact, even the modern philosophical idea of such has been around for many centuries, with great minds examining and contemplating the effects that landscapes have had on individuals throughout the ages.

一个人的经验和对环境的参与可能会带来更加热情和有效的环境管理,这个想法并不是一个新的想法。 事实上,即使是现代的哲学思想已经存在了许多世纪,伟大的思想家们正在研究和思考景观对各个时代的个人所产生的影响。

Worster begins in eighteenth century England. Before more broadlyrecognised American names like Thoreau, Muir, or Leopold, there was a quiet and humble man named Gilbert White. White lived in the village of Selborne, less than 100 kilometres southwest of London, between the years 1720 and 1793. (Worster, 1977) It was in this village that many belive the formalised study of ecosystems was born. (further evidence: Scott, 2009) White was the son of a retired barrister, and the grandchild of the churchrsquo;s vicar. He grew up in the small village where an agrarian way of life was alive and well, and the evidence of harmony between humankind and the natural world was strong. As a child, the landscape was his to explore, and explore it he did. An active adventurer, White found great joy in the outdoor environments of the surrounding countryside, and escaped the village in favour of the woods and the fields whenever possible.

沃斯特开始于十八世纪的英格兰。 在更广泛认可的美国名字如梭罗,缪尔或利奥波德之前,有一个名叫吉尔伯特怀特的安静而谦逊的人。 怀特生活在伦敦西南不到100公里的塞尔伯恩村,在1720年到1793年之间。(Worster,1977)正是在这个村子里,许多人相信正式的生态系统研究诞生了。 (进一步的证据:斯科特,2009年)怀特是一位退休大律师的儿子,也是教会牧师的孙子。 他在一个农村生活方式很好的小村庄里长大,人类和自然界之间和谐的证据很强烈。 作为一个孩子,景观是他的探索,并探索他做了。 作为一名活跃的冒险家,怀特在周围乡村的户外环境中获得了巨大的快乐,并尽可能地逃离了村庄,不受树林和田野的影响。

Whitersquo;s crowning achievement and most known work was his book, The Natural History of Selbourne, which was published in 1789. To this day, over 100 editions of the book exist around the world. The book is a series of letters written about the landscape of Selbourne and its surrounding area, written as part almanac, part research document, part poetic reflection. (Worster, 1977)

怀特的最高成就和最着名的作品是他的书“塞尔伯恩的自然历史”,该书出版于1789年。至今,全世界有超过100本书出版。 这本书是一系列关于塞尔伯恩及其周边地区景观的书信,作为部分历书,部分研究文献,部分诗意反思。 (Worster,1977)

Worster describes the book as a monumental literary addition, describing it as “a book that laid the foundations for the natural history essay in England and America. It was also one point of origin, representative if not seminal, to the modern study of ecology.” (1977, 5)

沃斯特将这本书描述为一部不朽的文学补充,将其描述为“一本为英国和美国的自然历史文章奠定基础的书。 这也是现代生态学研究的一个起点,即使不是开创性的代表。“(1977,5)

White wrote about what he saw in the world around him. He edited his original letters only slightly, and the resultant publication tells little about him as a person, of his own thoughts and motives, but more about his raw observations and intrigues with the actors that he observed. He hoped to illustrate the life of the landscape around him and document the connections found in the natural world. He was exposed to many relationships through his adventures on the land, and his daily wanderings throughout his home parish allowed him to make both spatial and temporal connections between the inhabitants.

怀特写下了他在周围世界所看到的一切。 他只是略微编辑了他的原始信件,由此产生的出版物几乎没有说明他作为一个人,他自己的想法和动机,而是更多地讲述了他对他观察到的演员的原始观察和阴谋。 他希望能够展示他周围景观的生活,并记录在自然界中发现的联系。他通过他在陆地上的冒险经历了许多人际关系,他在家庭教区的日常游荡使他能够在居民之间建立空间和时间的联系。

He embraced nature with a broad lens, inspired by these relationships, rather than individual anatomies or

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