英语原文共 17 页
Formal safety assessment of cruise ships
This paper examines the applicability of formal safety assessment to the cruise industry. Formal safety assessment and its development in the cruise shipping industry are described. Cruise ship accident statistics are studied and discussed. This is followed by an analysis of cruise ship characteristics and a proposed formal safety assessment methodology for cruise ships. A case study is carried out in order to demonstrate the proposed methodology. Further development in formal safety assessment in the context of cruise ship safety is finally discussed in detail.
Keywords: Cruise ship; Formal safety assessment; Cruise ship safety
关键词: 邮轮; 综合安全评估; 邮轮安全
Since the end of the Second World War (1945) a number of renowned passenger ships have gone into service. During the past 30 years, scientific and technological advances have made tremendous improvements in the design, power supply, accommodation and catering facilities of a passenger ship. Such improvements contribute to the efficiency of the ship and make possible competition with the land-based holidays, including hotels. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) countriesrsquo; Maritime Transport (1970), there was a decline in sea travel (1957–1970), which reduced the need for passenger ships (OECD, 1970).
自第二次世界大战(1945年)结束以来，许多著名的客轮已投入使用。三十年来，科学技术的进步使客船在设计、供电、住宿、餐饮设施等方面取得了巨大的进步。这种改进有助于提高船舶的效率，甚至能与包括旅馆的陆上度假竞争。根据经济合作发展组织(OECD)国家的《海洋运输》 (1970年)，海上旅行的数量减少了(1957 - 1970年)，降低了对客船的需求(OECD,1970年)。
Although, in the first instance, it would appear arguable by maritime economists that cruising is a shipping activity that falls exclusively within the subjectrsquo;s (i.e. shipping activity) classic framework, further consideration suggests that this is not the case(Wild amp; Dearing, 2000).Fundamentally, as shown in Fig.1 , it would appear that the market structure for cruising is comprised of three basic elements. These are transport, typified by a cruise, tourism and leisure, which is attractive to the cruise tourist, passenger or guest and, finally, travel, that forms the cruise itinerary (Wild amp; Dearing, 2000).
虽然最初，海事经济学家对邮轮旅游是一种完全属于其经典框架的航运活动似乎有争议，，但进一步的考虑表明，情况并非如此(Wild amp; Dearing, 2000)。从根本上看，如图1所示，邮轮旅游市场结构由三个基本要素构成。它们是以邮轮为代表的“交通工具”，，吸引游轮游客，乘客或游客的“观光休闲”，以及形成了邮轮行程的“旅行” (Wild amp; Dearing, 2000)。
Cruising is part of the market for maritime tourism and leisure and, as is illustrated in Fig.1, conceptually it may be viewed as residing in this segment of the market somewhere in the mid-section where these three key elements overlap (Wild amp; Dearing, 2000).The basic relationship between maritime tourism and leisure and the shipping markets is identified in Fig.2 (Wild amp; Dearing, 2000). Fig.2 shows a clear distinction between passenger services, such as those that were provided by traditional passenger liners and certain types of ferry service, and the market for maritime tourism and leisure.
邮轮旅游是海上观光和休闲市场的一部分，如图1所示，从概念上讲，邮轮旅游可以被视为在这三个关键要素重叠中间部分的某个市场(Wild amp; Dearing, 2000).。海上观光休闲与航运市场的基本关系如图2所示(Wild amp; Dearing, 2000).。从图2可以看出，传统客轮和某些类型轮渡提供的客运服务与海上观光休闲市场存在明显的区别。
Moreover, cruises can be characterised as one of the most augmented tourism products in the world as they offer a nearly all-inclusive vacation. During 1999, the cruise ships around the world carried almost 9 million passengers. According to several studies (Cruise Industry News, 2000; Wild amp; Dearing, 1999, 2000) there is a great potential in the industry and by the year 2006 at least 17 million passengers will take cruise holidays. Table 1 shows the estimated world cruise fleet until the year 2006 (Cruise Industry News, 2000; Wild amp; Dearing, 1999).
此外，邮轮可以被称为世界上最丰富的旅游产品之一，因为它们提供了几乎包罗万象的度假。。在 1999 年，世界各地的邮轮运送了近 900万名乘客。根据几项研究(Cruise Industry News, 2000; Wild amp; Dearing, 1999, 2000)表明其是一个潜力巨大的行业，到2006年至少有1700万名乘客将乘邮轮度假。表1显示了截至2006年的世界游轮船队的预期值(Cruise Industry News, 2000; Wild amp; Dearing, 1999)。
The trend is to build bigger ships that can accommodate more than 1500 passengers. Bigger ships can exploit economies of scale and decreasing the operating costs and at the same time increasing the revenue on board due to additional amenities that can accommodate.
Cruising has proved to be a very safe method of taking a vacation (Cartwright amp; Baird, 1999). “Although most critics acknowledge that the cruise industry in general has an excellent safety record, serious losses can and do occur. Fire may be the biggest danger to a cruise ship but collision and grounding may also have serious consequences. In most instances, the shiprsquo;s crew have responded professionally to the situations and have often prevented loss of the ship and lives” (Gossard, 1995).
邮轮旅游被证明是一种非常安全的度假方式(Cartwright amp; Baird, 1999)。尽管大多数批评人士承认，游轮行业总体上有着良好的安全记录，但严重事故有可能发生也的确发生着。火灾可能是游轮最大的危险，但碰撞和搁浅也可能产生严重的后果。在大多数情况下，船上的船员都对这种情况做出了专业的处理，及时避免了船只和生命的损失”(Gossard, 1995年)。
For the international shipping community, the safety of ships has always been a priority. Disasters such as the lsquo;Titanicrsquo; sinking in 1912 caused international concern. In the last ten years, more serious attention has been focused on marine safety on board cruise ships. This was due to serious cruise ship accidents taking place during this period as described in Table 2 where some major accidents are listed. Table 2 is formulated based on the authorsrsquo; investigation on the information found in Cartwright and Baird (1999), Internet Site (1992–2000), MAIB (2000).Tw o major disasters that led to the major changes in existing regulations were the fires on board the lsquo;Scandinavian Starrsquo; and lsquo;Moby Princersquo;