2022-03-22 08:03

附录B 外文原文

Smart Home Subcontractor Selection Using the Integration of AHP and Evidential Reasoning Approaches


Subcontracting is a very common practice in the construction industry. The large portions of actual production work are carried out by subcontractors. Therefore, main contractors have focused on selection of the appropriate subcontractors to increase the performance of their business. Finding the most suitable alternative among these subcontractors is another complex task because assimilating a large number of aspects is not simple without using any selection tools. In order to understand this better, breaking down the problem into smaller parts and building a model is one of the best ways in the selection process. Companies want to make differences to increase buyers7 interest; this is to obtain better position in the competitive construction market. Recently,the popularity of smart home and home automation has importantly increased in modern societies in Turkey. This has lead construction companies to import the smart home system into their business investments. This study aims to propose an
integrated model for selection of smart home subcontractor. The proposed model integrates Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Evidential Reasoning (ER) techniques. In this study, AHP is used to find the weights of the criteria that are considered in the smart home subcontractor evaluation process and ER is employed to rank the alternative subcontractors. The proposed approach is applied in a construction company that has completed many projects in Turkey. In the case study, twenty evaluation criteria are considered and eight alternative smart home companies are evaluated. The result of this study demonstrated that the suggested
model is applicable.

Keywords Analytic hierarchy process; case study; evidential reasoning; smart home;subcontractor selection


A subcontractor can be defined as an individual or a company hired by a main contractor to carry out specific tasks on a construction project and/or supply resources(e.g.,laborers,materials, equipment, tools) and designs [1-2].Subcontracting has become a very common practice,as the main contractorsrsquo; have been much more willing to sublet a large portion of their work for various reasons (e.g., financial benefits, resource constraints, better efficiency) [3].According to Hinze and Tracey(1994)[4],indeed,subcontractors are hired to perform 80-90% of the tasks on many construction projects,especially building projects. It should be noted that even though subcontracting is a very common practice, it is also a very risky practice. Having a group of unknown subcontractors which are hired to carry out the majority of the tasks in a project can be a disadvantage in some circumstances. The main contractor may fail to coordinate subcontractors or control the quality and progress of their works [3, 5-9].

Since the main contractor takes prime responsibility for the performance of the subcontractors, the selection of the most appropriate subcontractor is crucial to complete the project successfully in terms of time, cost, and quality[10-14]. Nevertheless, many contracting companies underestimate the risk of not being able to complete the project successfully due to selecting their subcontractors solely based on the lowest bid. This type of selection increases the possibility of selecting unqualified, incompetent, inexperienced, and insufficiently financed subcontractors [11-13,15-16]. Besides, the consequences of hiring inadequate subcontractors may be severe, such as claims, disputes,litigations,adversarial working conditions,penalties,abandonment of work,bankruptcy. Therefore, considering several factors in selection of subcontractors is important for the success of construction companies, rather than only taking bid prices into account when they select their subcontractors.

The selection of smart home subcontractors gained more importance, as the popularity of smart home and home automation has increased in Turkey. Even though the popularity of smart home and home automation has importantly increased in modern societies in Turkey, there is still a need for providing a concrete understanding of what it means. Smart home was officially first used by the American Association of House Builders in 1984. A home is not smart because of using spaces efficiently or being environment friendly (e.g., using solar power,recycling waste water). A smart home may include these characteristics, but it is smart because of using interactive technologies. In other words, smart home is a residence that has electronic devices which are capable of communicating with one another and can be controlled remotely by occupants. For example, a home that provides a control on lighting,heating,security audio-visual systems,curtains,baths and numerous other appliances through a mobile phone or other ^wirefree^ technologies can be called as a smart home [17].

Selecting the appropriate smart home subcontractor gains importance for increasing the performance of contractorsrsquo; business. The main objective of this study is to propose an approach to provide contracting companies with a tool that will support them overcome the challenge of selecting the most appropriate subcontractor for their projects. In the proposed approach, two multi-criteria-decision-making methods namely, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Evidential Reasoning (ER), were integrated. The proposed approach is also applied in a construction company, which is the main contractor of a residential project that consists of smart home systems.

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摘 要


关键词 智能家居;Linux;ARM9;温湿度检测;系统移植;

The Design And Implementation Of CortexA9-Based Home Environment Detection And Control System


In the paper we study the application of embedded technology in real life,which is a part of the development and derivation of smart home industry.By simulating the real home environment,the system can detect and control it efficiently and conveniently through the web page.We control the ARM9 development board based on the Linux platform. Compared with other operating systems, embedded system has the advantages of hardware and software have the character of tailor,and facilitates the re development and system upgrade of developers. The realization function in the paper is divided into four modules: lighting control module, temperature and humidity control module, real-time monitoring module and alarm system module.The following technologies has been used in the project.The client system using HTML language under the Hbuilder. I use the database to store user data.The data will be displayed through CGI.I also should transplantation uboot and motion camera module to the development board.Some related componentsrsquo; drivers should be written too. I use the shared memory to receive usersrsquo; requests process and sensors to collect data.Today,the smart home industry is experiencing a bottleneck.Which is caused by unable to meet the needs of customers, the pain points of high cost, purchase and use convenience, late customer service can not keep up.he real-time monitoring of the home environment through the web page meets the needs of the customers. It is much easier than before, and it is more convenient for maintenance and upgrade. Moreover, the cost of the system is much lower than before. The system has a strong timeliness, in line with the current trend of the development of the society,and it meets the requirements of the initial stage of the project.

Keywords Smart home; Linux; ARM9; temperature and humidity detection; system transplantation;

目 录

目 录 IV

第1章 绪论 1

1.1 家庭环境监测研究背景 1

1.2 家庭环境监测的研究和发展 1

1.3 本文结构 2

第2章 家庭环境监测与控制系统 3

2.1 系统整体架构 3

2.2 网页的设计 4

2.2.1 HTML语言的特点 4

2.3 CGI及SQLite 5

2.3.1 CGI的工作原理 5

2.3.2 CGI的代码实现 5

2.3.3 SQLite的移植 6

第3章 开发平台的选择 7

3.1 硬件平台的选择 7

3.1.1 EXYNOS4412开发板 7

3.1.2 STM32微控制器 7

3.2 软件开发平台的选择 8

3.2.1 Ubuntu操作系统 8

3.2.2 BOA服务器的应用 9

第4章 设备驱动的编写 11

4.1 设备驱动 11

4.1.1 Linux设备驱动的分类和特点 11

4.2 字符设备驱动的编写 12

4.2.1 cdev结构体 12

4.2.2 字符设备驱动编写流程 14

第5章 Uboot的移植 15

5.1 uboot的简介 15

5.2 Uboot命令介绍 16

5.3 uboot的移植 18

5.3.1 建立平台 18

5.3.2 实现能看到串口终端信息 20

第6章 系统功能的实现 25

6.1 标准I/O与文件I/O 25

6.1.1 系统调用及用户编程接口的应用 25

6.1.2 标准I/O的应用 25

6.1.3 文件I/O的应用 26

6.1.4 标准I/O和文件I/O的比较 26

6.2 Linux下多任务编程 27

6.2.1 进程的应用 27

6.2.2 线程的应用 29

6.3 Linux进程间通信的实现 29

6.3.1 管道通信 29

6.3.2 信号通信 30

6.3.3 信号量 30

6.3.4 共享内存 31

6.4 Linux下的多线程编程的实现 31

6.4.1 线程的基本编程 31

6.4.2 线程间的同步互斥 31

6.5 系统主函数程序的设计 34

结 论 36

致 谢 38

参 考 文 献 39

附录A 译文 40

附录B 外文原文 49

第1章 绪论

1.1 家庭环境监测研究背景





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