基于深度对抗网络学习的人脸多风格样本生成研究外文翻译资料

 2022-11-22 11:11

Generative Adversarial Nets

IanJ.Goodfellow, JeanPouget-Abadielowast;, MehdiMirza, BingXu, DavidWarde-Farley, SherjilOzairdagger;, AaronCourville, YoshuaBengioDagger; Dacute;epartement drsquo;informatique et de recherche opacute;erationnelle Universitacute;e de Montracute;eal Montracute;eal, QC H3C 3J7

Abstract

We propose a new framework for estimating generative models via an adversarial process, in which we simultaneously train two models: a generative model G that captures the data distribution, and a discriminative model D that estimates the probability that a sample came from the training data rather than G. The training procedure for G is to maximize the probability of D making a mistake. This framework corresponds to a minimax two-player game. In the space of arbitrary functions G and D, a unique solution exists, with G recovering the training data distribution and D equal to 1/2 everywhere. In the case where G and D are defined by multilayer percept , the entire system can be trained with backpropagation. There is no need for any Markov chains or unrolled approximate inference networks during either training or generation of samples. Experiments demonstrate the potential of the fram ework through qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the generated samples.

1 Introduction

The promise of deep learning is to discover rich, hierarchical models [2] that represent probability distribution the kind images, audio waveforms containing speech, and symbols in natural language corpora. So far, the most striking successes in deep learning have involved discriminative models, usually those that map a high-dimensional, rich sensory input to a class label [14, 22]. These striking successes have primarily been based on the backpropagation and dropout algorithms, using piecewise linear units [19, 9, 10] which have a particularly well-behaved gradient . Deep generative models have had less of an impact, due to the if that arise in maximum likelihood estimation and related strategies, and due to of leveraging the benefits of piecewise linear units in the generative context.

We propose a new generative model estimation procedure that sidesteps these difficulties. 1 In the proposed adversarial nets framework, the generative model is pitted against an adversary: a discriminative model that learns to determine the resample is from the model distribution or the data distribution. The generative model can be thought of as analogous to a team of counterfeiters, trying to produce fake currency and use it without detection, while the discriminative model is analogous to the police, trying to detect the counterfeit currency. Competition in this game drives both teams to improve their methods until the counterfeits from the genuine articles.

lowast;Jean Pouget-Abadie is visiting Universitacute;e de Montracute;eal from Ecole Polytechnique. dagger;Sherjil Ozair is visiting Universitacute;e de Montracute;eal from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Dagger;Yoshua Bengio is a CIFAR Senior Fellow. 1All code and hyperparameters available at http://www.github.com/goodfeli/adversarial

1arXiv:1406.2661v1 [stat.ML] 10 Jun 2014

This framework can yield specific training algorithms for many kinds of model and optimization algorithm. In this article, we explore the special case when the generative model generates samples by passing random noise through a multilayer perceptron, and the discriminative model is also a multilayer perceptron. We refer to this special case as adversarial nets. In this case, we can train both models using only the highly successful backpropagation and dropout algorithms [17] and sample from the generative model using only forward propagation. No approximate inference or Markov chains are necessary.

2 Related work

An alternative to directed graphical models with latent variables are undirected graphical models with latent variables, such as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) [27, 16], deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs) [26] and their numerous variants. The interactions within such models are represented as the product of unnormalized potential functions, normalized by a global summation/integration over all states of the random variables. This quantity (the partition function) and its gradient are intractable for all but the most trivial instances, although they can be estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Mixing poses a significant problem for learning algorithms that rely on MCMC [3, 5]. Deep belief networks (DBNs) [16] are hybrid models containing a single undirected layer and several directed layers. While a fast approximate layer-wise training criterion exists, DBNs incur the computational difficulties associated with both undirected and directed models. Alternative criteria that do not approximate or bound the log-likelihood have also been proposed, such as score matching [18] and noise-contrastive estimation (NCE) [13]. Both of these require the learned probability density to be analytically specified up to a normalization constant. Note that in many interesting generative models with several layers of latent variables (such as DBNs and DBMs), it is not even possible to derive a tractable unnormalized probability density. Some models such as denoising auto-encoders [30] and contractive autoencoders have learning rules very similar to score matching applied to RBMs. In NCE, as in this work, a discriminative training criterion is employed to fit a generative model. However, rather than fitting a separate discriminative model, the generative model itself is used to discriminate generated data from samples a fixed noise distribution. Because NCF uses a fixed noise distribution over a small subset of the observed variables.

Finally, some techniques do not involved probability distribution explicitly, but rather train a generative machine to draw samples from the desired distribution. This approach has the advantage that such machines can be designed to bet rained

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