2022-11-22 11:11

Teaching entrepreneurship using Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

Abstract: Entrepreneurship as a skill and process is increasingly being taught as a part of various university educational program. The literature is divided on the effectiveness of traditional methods to teach entrepreneurship. We consider the achievement of students learning outcomes in entrepreneurship course that is offered as a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). The results suggest that the MOOC is a suitable platform to teach entrepreneurship as it provide tools to enable students׳ collaborative learning as well as improve individuals׳ affective key entrepreneurial aspects such as such opportunity recognition and resource acquisition.

Keywords: MOOC; Entrepreneurship; Positive Psychology; Collaboration

1. Introduction

Entrepreneurship, as a skill and activity, is often associated with innovation, technological progress, economic growth and the generation of employment. This view is particularly held by policy makers (Minniti and Leacute;vesqu, 2008)) and hence there has been a general support and encouragement from the governments towards offering entrepreneurship courses within different academic programmes (Martin et al., 2013). While there is a body of research that questions the link between teaching entrepreneurship and economic growth in developed countries (Oosterbeek et al., 2010), there seems to be an agreement that teaching entrepreneurship has a number of positive effects and benefits (Sheshinski et al., 2007). These benefits include the inculcation of thinking, collaborative and communication skills that are highly valued by employers. A growing number of undergraduate programmes are opting to include courses related to entrepreneurship. Rasmussen and Soslash;rheim (2006) reported on action based entrepreneurship education in five different universities.

Entrepreneurship can be described as a positive frame of mind that is aimed at the identification and realisation of value. Besides the typical entrepreneurial skills such as collaborative, management and financial skills, an ideal entrepreneurship course should foster positive thinking. This paper reports on the use of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) to teach entrepreneurship to engineering students at Taylor׳s University (Malaysia). The MOOC is selected because it can provide the on-campus engineering students the opportunity to work with students from all over the world. It also provides a platform to deploy innovative techniques aimed at inculcating and enhancing positive thinking.

2. Massive Open Online Courses

Distance learning, where students take courses while being physically separated from their teachers for majority of the duration of the course (Barker and Holley, 1996) is by no means a new phenomenon. It has been delivered through mail, radio and TV and recently through the Internet. Distance learning provides limited interaction between students and lectures and rarely any collaboration among the students themselves. Distance learning is often viewed as a second option or an alternative type of education and it did not really grow to the level that it becomes a major segment of education provision. However, this may be quickly changing now thanks to the MOOCs, which are offered openly online, for free, to students anywhere in the world (Kop et al., 2011). Although the first MOOC was offered by the University of Manitoba in 2008 (Fini, 2009), MOOCs seem to be picking up now as two trends are converging, namely the inability of physical campuses to cater for the higher education needs of the growing world population and the maturity of the technology that makes broadband internet more accessible and reliable. In 2011, a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) about Artificial Intelligence offered by Stanford University attracted 160,000 students from around the world, with 23,000 of them managing to successfully complete the course,- a completion rate of 14%.

Since their inception, MOOCs attracted a wide variety of responses ranging from describing them as a passing fad to being a force that will change the world educational landscape. Early MOOCs have focused on engineering and computer science knowledge and skills, but researchers and instructors wonder whether MOOCs can have a place in teaching skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and entrepreneurship (National Research Council, 2012).

3. Entrepreneurship MOOC

Taylor׳s University׳s purpose is “to educate the youth of the world to take their productive places as leaders in the global community.” In order to produce well-rounded engine





1 介绍

企业家精神作为一种技能和活动,往往与创新、技术进步、经济增长和就业产生联系。这一观点尤其受到政策制定者(Minniti和Levesqu, 2008)的支持,因此,各国政府普遍支持和鼓励在不同的学术项目中开设创业课程(Martin et al., 2013)。虽然有一个研究机构质疑发达国家的创业与经济增长之间的联系(Oosterbeek et al., 2010),但似乎有一种共识认为,教授企业家精神有许多积极的影响和好处(Sheshinski等人,2007)。这些好处包括对雇主高度重视的思考、协作和沟通技巧的灌输。越来越多的本科课程选择开设与创业有关的课程。拉斯穆森和Soslash;rheim(2006)报道了行动建立在五个不同的大学创业教育。



“远程学习”是指学生在课程期间与老师进行物理分离的过程(Barker and Holley, 1996),但这并不是一种新的现象。它通过邮件、广播和电视,最近通过互联网发送。远程学习在学生和讲座之间提供了有限的互动,而且很少有学生之间的合作。远程教育通常被认为是第二种选择,或者是另一种教育方式,它并没有真正发展到它成为教育经费的主要部分。然而,由于MOOCs的存在,这一变化可能很快就会改变,因为mooc在网上免费提供给世界各地的学生(Kop et al., 2011)。尽管第一蕴藏于2008年由马尼托巴大学的提供(菲尼,2009),现在似乎MOOCs捡两种趋势正在不断趋同,即物理校园无法满足的高等教育需求不断增长的世界人口和技术的成熟,使得宽带互联网更方便可靠。2011年,斯坦福大学(Stanford University)提供的关于人工智能的大规模公开在线课程(MOOC)吸引了来自世界各地的16万名学生,其中2.3万名学生成功完成了课程,完成率为14%。
























4 大脑重新布线

人类的大脑似乎天生就会对负面刺激做出反应(Ito等人,1998)。虽然重要的是确保我们的祖先曾经居住的危险环境中生存,但这种资产是作为一种积极思考和对机会作出反应的能力的一种责任。男爵(2008)表明,个人׳影响影响创业实践的关键方面。为了让大脑对积极的刺激做出反应,可以通过写一个感恩日志来记录一个人每天都要感谢的事情(Ben-Shahar, 2010)。这项运动在MOOC中被广泛应用于大脑的重新布线,学生们可以在日常生活中公开报道他们所感激的三件事。在课程的这段时间里重复这一日常练习是为了创造积极的思考属性。


用于交付MOOC的平台是OpenLearning.com。OpenLearning提供了许多像论坛这样的社交媒体,让学生在学习的过程中可以评论和接受评论。OpenLearning还有其他有趣的特性,如“karma points”,它是通过同伴的积极评价获得的,以及可以自动或在达到某个学习目标时发出的徽章。这些特点,加上一个实时进度条,鼓励学习和合作贯穿整个课程。


6 对大规模开放课程的评估


7 结果与讨论




这一评估也考察了学生在课程中的整体表现和学习成果的成就,以增加调查的结果。为了定量测量和记录基于结果的教育(OBE),泰勒商学院的工程学院开发了一种软件工具,通过测量学生在不同评估组件上的成绩来衡量每一个学习成果的成果(这被绘制成不同的学习成果)。课程学习成果依次被映射到课程结果,给出了每个学生和整个群体在实现方案成果方面的进展情况(Namasivayam et al., 2013)。一个课程学习成果(LO)被认为是可以实现的,如果至少60%的学生在与该LO相关的评估组件中平均达到60%或以上。在与马来西亚其他类似的工程项目进行比较后,学校选择了60%的基准测试。随着持续的质量改进(CQI)的继续,可以对基准进行评审和增加。图1展示了2013年4月学期的学习成果,并将其与2012年4月的学期进行比较。显然,除了第一个学习结果之外,与上学期的结果相比,2013年4月的所有学习结果都有所改善。同样值得注意的是,这门课程的前几次课程并没有达到两到五的学习效果目标。

图1 课程学习成果的实现


8 结论



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[2]Baron, 2008, R.A. BaronThe role of affect in the entrepreneurial process, Academy of Management Review, 33 (2) (2008), pp. 328-340, CrossRefView Record in Scopus

[3]Ben-Shahar, 2010, T. Ben-ShaharEven Happier: A Gratitude Journal for Daily Joy and Lasting Fulfillment, McGraw-Hill (2010)

[4]Fini, 2009, A. Fini,The technological dimension of a massive open online course: the case of the CCK08 course tools, Int. Rev. Res. Open Distance Learn., 10 (2009), p. 5

[5]Ito et al., 1998, T.A. Ito, J.T. Larsen, N.K. Smith, J.T. CacioppoNegative information weighs more heavily on



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